The port the VNC server is listening on, usually or + display number host to request when connecting to a VNC proxy such as UltraVNC Repeater. Install the VNC Server software and assign a VNC password on the client computer. Make sure the client's firewall has the VNC port open (TCP ). In the normal method of operation a viewer connects to a port on the server (default port: ). Alternatively (depending on the implementation) a browser can. CLOUDFRONT CYBERDUCK
This drive will persist on the Guacamole server, confined within the drive path specified. If drive redirection is enabled on a Guacamole RDP connection, users will be able to upload and download files as described in Using Guacamole. Audio is enabled by default in both the client and in libguac-client-rdp. By default, audio input support within RDP is disabled. By default, direct RDP support for multi-touch events is disabled. Enabling support for multi-touch allows touch interaction with applications inside the RDP session, however the touch gestures available will depend on the level of touch support of those applications and the OS.
If multi-touch support is not enabled, pointer-type interaction with applications inside the RDP session will be limited to mouse or emulated mouse events. Printing is disabled by default, but with printing enabled, RDP users can print to a virtual printer that sends a PDF containing the document printed to the Guacamole client. Printing support requires GhostScript to be installed.
If guacd cannot find the gs executable when printing, the print attempt will fail. The name of the redirected printer device that is passed through to the RDP session. This is the name that the user will see in, for example, the Devices and Printers control panel. File transfer is disabled by default, but with file transfer enabled, RDP users can transfer files to and from a virtual drive which persists on the Guacamole server.
If set to true downloads from the remote server to client browser will be disabled. The default is false, which means that downloads will be allowed. If set to true, uploads from the client browser to the remote server location will be disabled. The default is false, which means uploads will be allowed if file transfer is enabled. The name of the filesystem used when passed through to the RDP session. The directory on the Guacamole server in which transferred files should be stored.
This directory must be accessible by guacd and both readable and writable by the user that runs guacd. This parameter does not refer to a directory on the RDP server. Only the final directory in the path will be created - if other directories earlier in the path do not exist, automatic creation will fail, and an error will be logged. By default, the directory specified by the drive-path parameter will not automatically be created, and attempts to transfer files to a non-existent directory will be logged as errors.
If you are using Hyper-V, you will need to specify the ID of the destination virtual machine within the preconnection-blob parameter. This value can be determined using PowerShell:. The preconnection PDU is intentionally generic. While its primary use is as a means for selecting virtual machines behind Hyper-V, other RDP servers may use it as well. In most cases, you will need to do the following when connecting to Hyper-V:. Hyper-V may use a self-signed certificate. This is a non-negative integer value dictating which of potentially several logical RDP connections should be used.
This parameter is optional, and is only required if the RDP server is documented as requiring it. If using Hyper-V, this should be left blank. This parameter is optional, and is only required if the RDP server is documented as requiring it, such as Hyper-V. For Hyper-V, this will be the ID of the destination virtual machine. If you will be using Guacamole to connect through such a gateway, you will need to provide additional parameters describing the connection to that gateway, as well as any required credentials.
The hostname of the remote desktop gateway that should be used as an intermediary for the remote desktop connection. If omitted, a gateway will not be used. The port of the remote desktop gateway that should be used as an intermediary for the remote desktop connection. The username of the user authenticating with the remote desktop gateway, if a gateway is being used.
This is not necessarily the same as the user actually using the remote desktop connection. The password to provide when authenticating with the remote desktop gateway, if a gateway is being used. The domain of the user authenticating with the remote desktop gateway, if a gateway is being used. This is not necessarily the same domain as the user actually using the remote desktop connection. RDP does not dictate the format of this information; it is specific to the balancer in use.
If you are using a load balancer and are unsure whether such information is required, you will need to check the documentation for your balancer. If your balancer provides. The load balancing information or cookie which should be provided to the connection broker. If no connection broker is being used, this should be left blank. RDP provides several flags which control the availability of features that decrease performance and increase bandwidth for the sake of aesthetics, such as wallpaper, window theming, menu effects, and smooth fonts.
These features are all disabled by default within Guacamole such that bandwidth usage is minimized, but you can manually re-enable them on a per-connection basis if desired. By default, wallpaper will be disabled, such that unnecessary bandwidth need not be spent redrawing the desktop. By default, theming within RDP sessions is disabled. Text over RDP is rendered with rough edges by default, as this reduces the number of colors used by text, and thus reduces the bandwidth required for the connection.
By default, the RDP server will only draw the window border while windows are being dragged. By default, such effects, if available, are disabled. Menu animations are disabled by default. This parameter allows that to be controlled in a Guacamole session.
RDP normally maintains caches of regions of the screen that are currently not visible in the client in order to accelerate retrieval of those regions when they come into view. This is usually only useful when dealing with known bugs in RDP server implementations and should remain enabled in most circumstances. Glyph caching is currently universally disabled, regardless of the value of this parameter, as glyph caching support is not considered stable by FreeRDP as of the FreeRDP 2.
Recent versions of Windows provide a feature called RemoteApp which allows individual applications to be used over RDP, without providing access to the full desktop environment. If your RDP server has this feature enabled and configured, you can configure Guacamole connections to use those individual applications. Specifies the RemoteApp to start on the remote desktop. If supported by your remote desktop server, this application, and only this application, will be visible to the user.
Windows requires a special notation for the names of remote applications. The names of remote applications must be prefixed with two vertical bars. For example, if you have created a remote application on your server for notepad. The working directory, if any, for the remote application. This parameter has no effect if RemoteApp is not in use. The command-line arguments, if any, for the remote application.
Controlling terminal behavior. Terminal display settings. By default, Guacamole does not do any verification of host identity before establishing SSH connections. The potential exists for Man-in-the-Middle MitM attacks when connecting to these hosts. Guacamole includes two methods for verifying SSH and SFTP server identity that can be used to make sure that the host you are connecting to is a host that you know and trust.
If the file is not present, no verification is done. If the file is present, it is read in at connection time and remote host identities are verified against the keys present in the file. The second method for verifying host identity is by passing a connection parameter that contains an OpenSSH known hosts entry for that specific host. If these parameters are not present on their respective connections no host identity verification is performed.
If the parameter is present then the identity of the remote host is verified against the identity provided in the parameter before a connection is established. SSH connections require a hostname or IP address defining the destination machine. SSH is standardized to use port 22 and this will be the proper value in most cases. You only need to specify the SSH port if you are not using the standard port.
The port the SSH server is listening on, usually If this is not specified, the default of 22 will be used. The known hosts entry for the SSH server. This parameter is optional, and, if not provided, no verification of host identity will be done. If the parameter is provided the identity of the server will be checked against the data.
By default the SSH client does not send keepalive requests to the server. This parameter allows you to configure the the interval in seconds at which the client connection sends keepalive packets to the server. The default is 0, which disables sending the packets. The minimum value is 2. Generally for this authentication method you need only provide a username. For Guacamole to use public key authentication, it must have access to your private key and, if applicable, its passphrase.
If the private key requires a passphrase, but no passphrase is provided, you will be prompted for the passphrase upon connecting. If no private key is provided, Guacamole will attempt to authenticate using a password, reading that password from the connection parameters, if provided, or by prompting the user directly. The username to use to authenticate, if any. If not specified, you will be prompted for the username upon connecting.
The password to use when attempting authentication, if any. If not specified, you will be prompted for your password upon connecting. The entire contents of the private key to use for public key authentication. If this parameter is not specified, public key authentication will not be used.
The passphrase to use to decrypt the private key for use in public key authentication. This parameter is not needed if the private key does not require a passphrase. If the private key requires a passphrase, but this parameter is not provided, the user will be prompted for the passphrase upon connecting. By default, SSH sessions will start an interactive shell. If you wish to override this and instead run a specific command, you can do so by specifying that command in the configuration of the Guacamole SSH connection.
The command to execute over the SSH session, if any. The language of the session is normally set by the SSH server. If the SSH server allows the relevant environment variable to be set, the language can be overridden on a per-connection basis. The specific locale to request for the SSH session. This parameter allows you to control the timezone that is sent to the server over the SSH connection, which will change the way local time is displayed on the server. The available values of this parameter are standard IANA key zone format timezones, and the value will be sent directly to the server in this format.
Whether file transfer should be enabled. Guacamole includes the guacctl utility which controls file downloads and uploads when run on the SSH server by the user over the SSH connection. If omitted, the root directory will be used by default.
If set to true downloads from the remote system to the client browser will be disabled. The default is false, which means that downloads will be enabled. If set to true uploads from the client browser to the remote system will be disabled. The default is false, which means that uploads will be enabled. The connection will use SSH to connect to localhost at port Other options are available for controlling the font. Telnet is a text protocol and provides similar functionality to SSH. By nature, it is not encrypted, and does not provide support for file transfer.
Telnet support for Guacamole is provided by the libguac-client-telnet library, which will be installed as part of guacamole-server if the required dependencies are present during the build. Telnet connections require a hostname or IP address defining the destination machine.
Telnet is standardized to use port 23 and this will be the proper value in most cases. You only need to specify the telnet port if you are not using the standard port. The port the telnet server is listening on, usually If this is not specified, the default of 23 will be used. Telnet does not actually provide any standard means of authentication.
Authentication over telnet depends entirely on the login process running on the server and is interactive. To cope with this, Guacamole provides non-standard mechanisms for automatically passing the username and entering password. Whether these mechanisms work depends on specific login process used by your telnet server.
This is the mechanism used by most telnet clients, typically via the -l command-line option. Passwords cannot typically be sent automatically - at least not as reliably as the username. There is no PASSWORD environment variable this would actually be a horrible idea nor any similar mechanism for passing the password to the telnet login process, and most telnet clients provide no built-in support for automatically entering the password.
The best that can be done is to heuristically detect the password prompt, and type the password on behalf of the user when the prompt appears. The prescribed method for doing this with a traditional command-line telnet is to use a utility like expect. Guacamole provides similar functionality by searching for the password prompt with a regular expression. If Guacamole receives a line of text which matches the regular expression, the password is automatically sent.
If no such line is ever received, the password is not sent, and the user must type the password manually. Pressing any key during this process cancels the heuristic password prompt detection. If the password prompt is not being detected properly, you can try using your own regular expression by specifying it within the password-regex parameter. If not specified, or not supported by the telnet server, the login process on the telnet server will prompt you for your credentials.
Most telnet servers satisfy this criteria. If specified, your password will be typed on your behalf when the password prompt is detected. The regular expression to use when waiting for the username prompt. If not specified, a reasonable default built into Guacamole will be used.
The regular expression to use when waiting for the password prompt. The regular expression to use when detecting that the login attempt has succeeded. If specified, the terminal display will not be shown to the user until text matching this regular expression has been received from the telnet server. The regular expression to use when detecting that the login attempt has failed. If specified, the connection will be closed with an explicit login failure error if text matching this regular expression has been received from the telnet server.
The connection will use telnet to connect to localhost at port If Guacamole is set up to use HTTPS then communication with the Guacamole client will be encrypted, but communication between guacd and the telnet server will still be unencrypted. You should not use telnet unless the network between guacd and the telnet server is trusted.
Kubernetes provides an API for attaching to the console of a container over the network. Kubernetes support for Guacamole is provided by the libguac-client-kubernetes library, which will be installed as part of guacamole-server if the required dependencies are present during the build. Attaching to a Kubernetes container requires the hostname or IP address of the Kubernetes server and the name of the pod containing the container in question. By default, Guacamole will attach to the first container in the pod.
If there are multiple containers in the pod, you may wish to also specify the container name. The port the Kubernetes server is listening on for API connections. If omitted, port will be used by default. The name of the Kubernetes namespace of the pod containing the container being attached to. The name of the container to attach to. If omitted, the first container in the pod will be used.
When this parameter is specified, the behavior of the connection is analogous to running kubectl exec. When omitted, the behavior is analogous to running kubectl attach. If the certificate used by Kubernetes is self-signed or signed by a non-standard certificate authority, the certificate for the certificate authority will also be needed.
If omitted, SSL client authentication will not be performed. The certificate of the certificate authority that signed the certificate of the Kubernetes server, in PEM format. If omitted, verification of the Kubernetes server certificate will use only system-wide certificate authorities. Guacamole provides bidirectional access to the clipboard by default for all supported protocols.
This behavior can be overridden on a per-connection basis with the disable-copy and disable-paste parameters. By default, the user will be given access to the copied text. By default, the user will be able to paste data from outside the browser within the remote desktop session. If omitted, SFTP will be disabled. If omitted, the hostname of the remote desktop server associated with the connection will be used.
If omitted, the standard port of 22 will be used. The known hosts entry for the SFTP server. This parameter is optional, and, if not provided, no verification of SFTP host identity will be done. This parameter is optional if a username is specified for the remote desktop connection. If omitted, the username specified for the remote desktop connection will be used.
The directory to upload files to if they are simply dragged and dropped, and thus otherwise lack a specific upload location. If omitted, the default of 0 will be used, disabling sending keepalive packets. Sessions of all supported protocols can be recorded graphically. These recordings take the form of Guacamole protocol dumps and are recorded automatically to a specified directory.
Recordings can be subsequently translated to a normal video stream using the guacenc utility provided with guacamole-server. For example, to produce a video called NAME. The guacenc utility has additional options for overriding default behavior, including tweaking the output format, which are documented in detail within the manpage:. If recording of key events is explicitly enabled using the recording-include-keys parameter, recordings can also be translated into human-readable interpretations of the keys pressed during the session using the guaclog utility.
The usage of guaclog is analogous to guacenc , and results in the creation of a new text file containing the interpreted events:. Guacamole will never overwrite an existing recording. If even appending a numeric suffix does not help, the session will simply not be recorded.
The directory in which screen recording files should be created. If a graphical recording needs to be created, then this parameter is required. Specifying this parameter enables graphical screen recording. If this parameter is omitted, no graphical recording will be created.
By default, the directory specified by the recording-path parameter will not automatically be created, and attempts to create recordings within a non-existent directory will be logged as errors. This parameter only has an effect if graphical recording is enabled.
If the recording-path is not specified, graphical session recording will be disabled, and this parameter will be ignored. The filename to use for any created recordings. If omitted, graphical output will be included in the recording. If omitted, mouse events will be included in the recording. The recording can subsequently be passed through the guaclog utility to produce a human-readable interpretation of the keys pressed during the session.
If omitted, key events will be not included in the recording. The full, raw text content of SSH sessions, including timing information, can be recorded automatically to a specified directory. This format is compatible with the format used by the standard UNIX script command, and can be replayed using scriptreplay if installed.
The directory in which typescript files should be created. If a typescript needs to be recorded, this parameter is required. Specifying this parameter enables typescript recording. If this parameter is omitted, no typescript will be recorded. By default, the directory specified by the typescript-path parameter will not automatically be created, and attempts to record typescripts in a non-existent directory will be logged as errors.
This parameter only has an effect if typescript recording is enabled. If the typescript-path is not specified, recording of typescripts will be disabled, and this parameter will be ignored. The base filename to use when determining the names for the data and timing files of the typescript. Each typescript consists of two files which are created within the directory specified by typescript-path : NAME , which contains the raw text data, and NAME.
In most cases, the default behavior for a terminal works without modification. However, when connecting to certain systems, particularly operating systems other than Linux, the terminal behavior may need to be tweaked to allow it to operate properly. The settings in this section control that behavior.
The resulting Guacamole. OutputStream can then be used to stream data directly to the input of the terminal session, as if typed by the user:. In this case, the chosen font must be installed on the server , as it is the server that will handle rendering of characters to the terminal display, not the client.
The color scheme to use for the terminal session. It consists of a semicolon-separated series of name-value pairs. Each name-value pair is separated by a colon and assigns a value to a color in the terminal emulator palette. For example, to use blue text on white background by default, and change the red color to a purple shade, you would specify:.
This format is similar to the color configuration format used by Xterm, so Xterm color configurations can be easily adapted for Guacamole. If not specified, Guacamole will render text as gray over a black background. Set the color at index N on the Xterm color palette. For example, color9 refers to the red color. Use the specified color in RGB format, with each component in hexadecimal. Use the color currently assigned to index N on the Xterm color palette.
For example, color9 specifies the current red color. Note that the color value is used rather than the color reference, so if color9 is changed later in the color scheme configuration, that new color will not be reflected in this assignment. For backward compatibility, Guacamole will also accept four special values as the color scheme parameter:.
The name of the font to use. The size of the font to use, in points. If not specified, the default of 12 will be used instead. The maximum number of rows to allow within the terminal scrollback buffer. If not specified, the scrollback buffer will be limited to a maximum of rows.
The below parameters control the behavior of this functionality, which is disabled by default. There are several factors that can impact the ability of Wake-on-LAN WoL to function correctly, many of which are outside the scope of Guacamole configuration. If you are configuring WoL within Guacamole you should also be familiar with the other components that need to be configured in order for it to function correctly.
By default, Guacamole will not send the WoL packet. Enabling this option requires that the wol-mac-addr parameter also be configured, otherwise the WoL packet will not be sent. This parameter configures the MAC address that Guacamole will use in the magic WoL packet to attempt to wake the remote system. If wol-send-packet is enabled, this parameter is required or else the WoL packet will not be sent. This parameter configures the IPv4 broadcast address or IPv6 multicast address that Guacamole will send the WoL packet to in order to wake the host.
If no value is provided, the default local IPv4 broadcast address If not configured the default UDP port 9 will be used. By default after the WoL packet is sent Guacamole will attempt immediately to connect to the remote host. It may be desirable in certain scenarios to have Guacamole wait before the initial connection in order to give the remote system time to boot. Setting this parameter to a positive value will cause Guacamole to wait the specified number of seconds before attempting the initial connection.
These tokens allow the values of connection parameters to vary dynamically by the user using the connection, and provide a simple means of forwarding authentication information without storing that information in the connection configuration itself, so long as the remote desktop connection uses the same credentials as Guacamole.
The username of the current Guacamole user. When a user accesses a connection, this token will be dynamically replaced with the username they provided when logging in to Guacamole. The password of the current Guacamole user. When a user accesses a connection, this token will be dynamically replaced with the password they used when logging in to Guacamole. This will be the address of the client side of the HTTP connection to the Guacamole server at the time the current user logged in.
The hostname of the current Guacamole user. This will be the hostname of the client side of the HTTP connection to the Guacamole server at the time the current user logged in. The current date in the local time zone of the Guacamole server. When a user accesses a connection, this token will be dynamically replaced with the date that the connection began. The current time in the local time zone of the Guacamole server.
When a user accesses a connection, this token will be dynamically replaced with the time that the connection began. Note that these tokens are replaced dynamically each time a connection is used. If two different users access the same connection at the same time, both users will be connected independently of each other using different sets of connection parameters.
At times it can be useful to use the value provided by a token, but with slight modifications. The following modifiers are currently supported:. Convert the entire value of the token to lower-case. This can be useful in situations where users log in to Guacamole with a mixed-case username, but a remote system requires the username be lower-case. Each extension can also implement its own arbitrary tokens that can dynamically fill in values provided by the extension. Within these extensions, attribute names are canonicalized into a standard format that consists of all capital letters separated by underscores.
The CAS extension will read attributes provided by the CAS server when a user is authenticated and will make those attributes available as tokens. The CAS server must be specifically configured to release certain attributes to the client Guacamole , and configuration of that is outside the scope of this document.
Any attribute that the CAS server is configured to release should be available to Guacamole as a token for use within a connection. A CAS server configured to release attributes firstname , lastname , email , and mobile would produce the following tokens:. The attributes retrieved for a user are configured using the ldap-user-attributes parameter. In the normal method of operation a viewer connects to a port on the server default port: Alternatively depending on the implementation a browser can connect to the server default port: And a server can connect to a viewer in "listening mode" on port One advantage of listening mode is that the server site does not have to configure its firewall to allow access on port or ; the duty is on the viewer, which is useful if the server site has no computer expertise and the viewer user is more knowledgeable.
The server sends small rectangles of the framebuffer to the client. In its simplest form, the VNC protocol can use a lot of bandwidth , so various methods have been devised to reduce the communication overhead. For example, there are various encodings methods to determine the most efficient way to transfer these rectangles. The VNC protocol allows the client and server to negotiate which encoding they will use. The simplest encoding, supported by all clients and servers, is raw encoding , which sends pixel data in left-to-right scanline order, and after the original full screen has been transmitted, transfers only rectangles that change.
This encoding works very well if only a small portion of the screen changes from one frame to the next as when a mouse pointer moves across a desktop, or when text is written at the cursor , but bandwidth demands get very high if a lot of pixels change at the same time such as when scrolling a window or viewing full-screen video.
Different port assignments can be used as long as both client and server are configured accordingly. Although possible even on low bandwidth, using VNC over the Internet is facilitated if the user has a broadband connection at both ends. However, it may require advanced network address translation NAT , firewall and router configuration such as port forwarding in order for the connection to go through. To applications, Xvnc appears as an X "server" i.
Applications can display themselves on Xvnc as if it were a normal X display, but they will appear on any connected VNC viewers rather than on a physical screen. In addition, the display that is served by VNC is not necessarily the same display seen by a user on the server. It is also possible to run multiple VNC sessions from the same computer. Users commonly deploy VNC as a cross-platform remote desktop system. By default, RFB is not a secure protocol. While passwords are not sent in plain-text as in telnet , cracking could prove successful if both the encryption key and encoded password were sniffed from a network.
For this reason it is recommended that a password of at least 8 characters be used. On the other hand, there is also an 8-character limit on some versions of VNC; if a password is sent exceeding 8 characters, the excess characters are removed and the truncated string is compared to the password. UltraVNC supports the use of an open-source encryption plugin which encrypts the entire VNC session including password authentication and data transfer.
However, use of such encryption plugins makes it incompatible with other VNC programs. To circumvent this, it should be tunneled through an SSH connection see below. There are also freeware applications that create instant VPN tunnels between computers.
An additional security concern for the use of VNC is to check whether the version used requires authorization from the remote computer owner before someone takes control of their device. This will avoid the situation where the owner of the computer accessed realizes there is someone in control of their device without previous notice.
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